The four cases that are found in all stages of Greek are the nominative, genitive, accusative, and vocative. Areas where Modern Greek is spoken (in dark blue those areas where it is the official language). The main phonological changes occurred during the Hellenistic and Roman period (see Koine Greek phonology for details): In all its stages, the morphology of Greek shows an extensive set of productive derivational affixes, a limited but productive system of compounding and a rich inflectional system. Where to stay? The theme became politicized: a distinction rose between the Katharevoussa, which became the high-style language associated with official functions such as governmental affairs, education and religion, and the dimotiki language (popular language) used by common people in their everyday life. call Proto-hellenic. Modern Greek is a descendant of the Ancient language and is affiliated to the part of the Greek or Hellenic branch of Indo-European. During the older periods of Greek, loanwords into Greek acquired Greek inflections, thus leaving only a foreign root word. He spread the language so far east that it was adapted by most of the ancient world as a second language. There is an Ancient phase, subdivided into a Mycenaean period (texts in syllabic script attested from the 14th to the 13th century bce) and Archaic and Classical periods (beginning with the adoption of the alphabet, from the 8th to … This is not an exhaustive list but will give you a good feel for the Greek roots of English. 148", "Πόσο "ελληνικές" είναι οι ξένες γλώσσες", "Recent Research in the Ancient Macedonian Dialect: Consolidation and New Perspectives", "Yevanic alphabet, pronunciation and language", population exchange between Greece and Turkey, "Chapter 8: How Old is the Indo-European Language Family? The koine is the original language of the New Testament and the basis for the development of Medieval and Modern Greek. European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, foundation of international scientific and technical vocabulary, List of medical roots, suffixes and prefixes, "Ancient Tablet Found: Oldest Readable Writing in Europe", "The Constitution of Cyprus, App. It is spoken by at least 13.4 million people today in Greece, Cyprus, Italy, Albania, and Turkey and by the Greek diaspora. The struggle between the proponents of Dimotiki and Katharevoussa raised various social attitudes and political positions. There are several theories about the origins of the Greek language. Greek language - Greek language - Linguistic characteristics: The phonological systems of Ancient Greek differ noticeably from one period to another and from one dialect to another. Do you have a question about Greece and the Greek islands? Top Greek islands & Mainland Destinations, Most popular Greek islands & mainland destinations. Many have been replaced by periphrastic (analytical) forms. Greek had many different dialects. , Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European language family. Greeka team and its community members will be delighted to help you! Still earlier, Germanic was just a dialect (the ancestors of Greek, Latin, and Sanskrit were three other such dialects) of a language conventionally designated Indo-European, and thus English is just one relatively young member of an ancient family of languages whose descendants cover a fair portion of the globe.  The earliest written evidence is a Linear B clay tablet found in Messenia that dates to between 1450 and 1350 BC, making Greek the world's oldest recorded living language. This gradually led to a mixing dialect which was the beginning of the koine, or common dialect, mostly known as the Hellenistic Koine. Greek verbs have synthetic inflectional forms for: Many aspects of the syntax of Greek have remained constant: verbs agree with their subject only, the use of the surviving cases is largely intact (nominative for subjects and predicates, accusative for objects of most verbs and many prepositions, genitive for possessors), articles precede nouns, adpositions are largely prepositional, relative clauses follow the noun they modify and relative pronouns are clause-initial. Among the Indo-European languages, its date of earliest written attestation is matched only by the now-extinct Anatolian languages. In 1976, Dimotiki was declared the official language of Greece, having incorporated features of Katharevousa and giving birth to Standard Modern Greek, which is used today for all official purposes and in education.  It is basically a syllabary, which was finally deciphered by Michael Ventris and John Chadwick in the 1950s (its precursor, Linear A, has not been deciphered and most likely encodes a non-Greek language). View Greek Names for Boys at Baby Names Pedia - Page 114 - with concise name meanings, origins, pronunciation, and charts! Dimotiki language was adopted in education and administration and it has been kept since then as the formal language of modern Greece. During the Hellenistic period, the Greek language developed into what we now know as Biblical Greek. This is longer than any other Indo-European language spoken today. This form of the inscription is the closest to the modern language of today. It holds the distinction for being the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. The first documents proving its existence are Linear tablets from the 14th – 15th Century BC. This history is often divided into three parts, ancient Greek, medieval Greek, and modern Greek. Greek has occasionally been written in the Latin script, especially in areas under Venetian rule or by Greek Catholics. The most famous example of Linear A is written in the famous Phaistos Disc. The Greek language is conventionally divided into the following periods: In the modern era, the Greek language entered a state of diglossia: the coexistence of vernacular and archaizing written forms of the language. Greek (modern Ελληνικά, romanized: Elliniká, ancient Ἑλληνική, Hellēnikḗ) is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus, Albania, other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.  It is also often stated that the historical changes have been relatively slight compared with some other languages.  The language of the Linear B texts, Mycenaean Greek, is the earliest known form of Greek.  The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems. The earliest texts are written in a script called Linear B. The traditional system, now called the polytonic orthography (or polytonic system), is still used internationally for the writing of Ancient Greek. Every region has, of course, its local accent. This type of language survived through centuries and became an official language of the Roman Empire later on. If you want a shorter and less formal history of Greek, I suggest Wendy Moleas "the Development of the Greek Language". Greek is an Indo-European language and its history starts approximately in the 15th century BC with the Mycenaean tablets written in Linear B. Ancient Greek tended to be verb-final, but neutral word order in the modern language is VSO or SVO. , Greek, in its modern form, is the official language of Greece, where it is spoken by almost the entire population. Deucalion and Pyrrha repopulate the land once t… , The historical unity and continuing identity between the various stages of the Greek language are often emphasized. This language is known as Linear A and it has not been fully decoded till today. Ancient Greek was an Indo-European language spoken in Ancient Greece from the 9th to the 4th century BC. Greek has been spoken in the Balkan peninsula since around the 3rd millennium BC, or possibly earlier. , For the Greek language used during particular eras; see, Indo-European language of Greece, Cyprus and other regions. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age. Where to eat? It was also used as a liturgical language in Christian Nubian kingdom of Makuria which was in modern day Sudan. Greek roots are often used to coin new words for other languages; Greek and Latin are the predominant sources of international scientific vocabulary. Second Theory considers the migration into Greece happened before Proto-Greek, so the characteristics of Greek sounds were later. The inflectional categories of the Greek verb have likewise remained largely the same over the course of the language's history but with significant changes in the number of distinctions within each category and their morphological expression. Greek is one of the oldest Indo-European languages and is usually divided into Ancient Greek (often thought of as a dead language) and Modern Greek. This script was initially created by non-Greek groups; Greeks from the powerful city of Mycenae used it to write their own language, the Mycenaean dialect. In the 12th century BC, a new language started to develop, called Linear B, where each drawing symbol is a consonant-vowel combination.  A significant percentage of Albania's population has some basic knowledge of the Greek language due in part to the Albanian wave of immigration to Greece in the 1980s and '90s. The main 3 dialects are the Ionic, Doric and Aeolic dialect and all were spoken during the classical period (around 500 BC).  Greeks are also a recognized ethnic minority in Hungary.. One theory suggests that it originated with a migration of proto-Greek speakers into the Greek peninsula, which is dated to any period between 3000 BC and 1700 BC. It proved impossible from a practical point of view. There are also several historical forms. It would eventually become the official language of the Byzantine Empire and develop into Medieval Greek. , Some Greek Muslims from Crete wrote their Cretan Greek in the Arabic alphabet. In the late 9th and early 8th century BC, the language found was based on the Phoenician syllabary, written from left to right and back again.  Together with the Latin texts and traditions of the Roman world, the study of the Greek texts and society of antiquity constitutes the discipline of Classics. Although Greek has undergone morphological and phonological changes comparable to those seen in other languages, never since classical antiquity has its cultural, literary, and orthographic tradition been interrupted to the extent that one can speak of a new language emerging. Greek (Greek: ελληνικά (elinika)) belongs to the Greek branch of the Indo-European languages family, spoken by about 13 million people, mostly in Greece and Cyprus, where it has an official status. The Cypriot syllabary is attested in Cyprus from the 11th century BC until its gradual abandonment in the late Classical period, in favor of the standard Greek alphabet.. The theme was eventually solved in 1976, with actions of the after dictatorship government. What came to be known as the Greek language question was a polarization between two competing varieties of Modern Greek: Dimotiki, the vernacular form of Modern Greek proper, and Katharevousa, meaning 'purified', a compromise between Dimotiki and Ancient Greek, which was developed in the early 19th century, and was used for literary and official purposes in the newly formed Greek state. The Greek language holds an important place in the history of the Western world. The first written Greek letters were found on baked mud tablets, in the remains of the Minoan Knossos Palace of Crete island. The form of Greek used by writers from Homer (8th century B.C.) Greek language - Greek language - Modern Greek: Modern Greek derives from the Koine via the local varieties that presumably arose during the Byzantine period and is the mother tongue of the inhabitants of Greece and of the Greek population of the island of Cyprus. In classical Greek, as in classical Latin, only upper-case letters existed. The Ancient Greek Language has different theories of origin; firstly some believe it migrated with the Proto-Greek speakers into the Greek Peninsula, dating from 2500BC to 1700 BC.  It is also the official language of Cyprus (nominally alongside Turkish). These marks were introduced during the course of the Hellenistic period. Both attributive and predicative adjectives agree with the noun. Greek has been spoken in the Balkan peninsula since around the 3rd millennium BC, or possibly earlier. Each of these were from different tribes, the Aeolian… This video is all about the Greek language, its history and development, and some important features of the language. Before the population exchange in 1923, there were Greek-speaking communities in Turkey (Pontus and Cappadocia). The … More: Learn some Greek | Useful Greek expressions. After about 4 centuries of Ottoman occupation, Greece had mostly an oral culture due to all these centuries of different dominations. . The form and meaning of many words have evolved. The mythical Deucalion (son of the fire-bringing titan Prometheus) was the savior of the human race from the Great Flood, in the same way Noah is presented in the biblical version or Utnapishtim in the Mesopotamian one. Historically, significant Greek-speaking communities and regions were found throughout the Eastern Mediterranean, in what are today Southern Italy, Turkey, Cyprus, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Egypt, and Libya; in the area of the Black Sea, in what are today Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Russia, Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan; and, to a lesser extent, in the Western Mediterranean in and around colonies such as Massalia, Monoikos, and Mainake.  Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. Greek is spoken today by at least 13 million people, principally in Greece and Cyprus along with a sizable Greek-speaking minority in Albania near the Greek-Albanian border. through Plato (4th century B.C.) to the present. , Another similar system used to write the Greek language was the Cypriot syllabary (also a descendant of Linear A via the intermediate Cypro-Minoan syllabary), which is closely related to Linear B but uses somewhat different syllabic conventions to represent phoneme sequences. While its exact origins are mysterious, the ancestral form of Latin seems to have been one of the oldest members of the Indo-European language family, a large category also including Greek… Different variants of the early Greek alphabet suited to local dialects. In Eastern Thessaly, Boeotia, Attica, and the Peloponnesus and on certain Aegean islands (notably Crete), only varieties of Greek other than West Greek were spoken. The letter sigma has an additional lowercase form (ς) used in the final position: In addition to the letters, the Greek alphabet features a number of diacritical signs: three different accent marks (acute, grave, and circumflex), originally denoting different shapes of pitch accent on the stressed vowel; the so-called breathing marks (rough and smooth breathing), originally used to signal presence or absence of word-initial /h/; and the diaeresis, used to mark the full syllabic value of a vowel that would otherwise be read as part of a diphthong. There are many English words of Greek origin. A comprehensive overview in J.T. The major change in the nominal morphology since the classical stage was the disuse of the dative case (its functions being largely taken over by the genitive). The system that has been chosen to serve as an example here is that which may be attributed to Old Attic of about 500 bce. The history of the Greek Language begins, as far as the surviving texts are concerned, with the Mycenaean civilization at least as early as the thirteenth century BCE. Greek is also recognized as a minority language in certain regions of … Modern borrowings (from the 20th century on), especially from French and English, are typically not inflected; other modern borrowings are derived from South Slavic (Macedonian/Bulgarian) and Eastern Romance languages (Aromanian and Megleno-Romanian). The dative/locative of Ancient Greek disappeared in the late Hellenistic period, and the instrumental case of Mycenaean Greek disappeared in the Archaic period. In the 12th century BC, a new language started to develop, called Linear B, where each drawing symbol is a consonant-vowel combination. Ancient Greek and Latin are very important languages. However, the morphological changes also have their counterparts in the syntax, and there are also significant differences between the syntax of the ancient and that of the modern form of the language. It has been spoken on the Balkan Peninsula since the 9th Century BC, this period being considered the beginning of the Greek language’s history. Greek is also the language in which many of the foundational texts in science and philosophy are composed. Thus classical Greek literature It really does give plenty of detail for every period of Greek, with historical sections to give background to linguistic changes, with the only part somewhat missing being the Modern Greek of the 19th and 20th centuries, which has only one chapter dedicated to it. Greek has an unbroken history of being a written language for over 3,000 years. [note 2] Nouns, articles, and adjectives show all the distinctions except for a person. This dialect of Greek is also referred to as “Koine”. Nationalist governments like the dictator of the Junta, Ioannis Papadopoulos, favored Katharevoussa. The Greek language has a long and rich history stretching all the way from the thirteenth century B.C. Among the Indo-European languages, its date of earliest written attestation is matched only by the now-extinct Anatolian languages. This usage is sometimes called aljamiado as when Romance languages are written in the Arabic alphabet. This suggestion was accepted and the katharevoussa (meaning purified language) was created. During this period, Athens established itself as the political, economic and cultural center of the Greek world, and therefore the Attic idiom started to be used as a common language. Additionally, the term Greeklish is often used when the Greek language is written in a Latin script in online communications.. Since then, Greek has been written mostly in the simplified monotonic orthography (or monotonic system), which employs only the acute accent and the diaeresis. The term Frankolevantinika / Φραγκολεβαντίνικα applies when the Latin script is used to write Greek in the cultural ambit of Catholicism (because Frankos / Φράγκος is an older Greek term for West-European dating to when most of (Roman Catholic Christian) West Europe was under the control of the Frankish Empire). Greek, which is also the official language of Greece and Cyprus, is known as the language with the longest history. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning at least 3,400 years of written records. vernacular borrowings, transmitted orally through Vulgar Latin directly into Old English, e.g., 'butter' (butere, from Latin butyrum < βούτυρον), or through French, e.g., 'ochre'. 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